While any translation of the Scriptures may in Hebrew be called a targum, the word is used especially for a translation of a book of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic. Before the Christian era, Aramaic had in good part replaced Hebrew in Palestine as the vernacular of the Jews. It continued as their vernacular for centuries later and remained in part as the language of the schools after Aramaic itself had been replaced as the vernacular.
The Targum of Job is regarded as one of the most enigmatic of targums. The translation used is based on the Cambridge University MS Ee. 5.9, widely regarded as the most important of known manuscripts. This manuscript is followed as closely as possible, including the marginal readings and the Variant Targum[s] incorporated in the text.
The primary aim of the Proverbs Targum is to provide an English translation, none having yet been published. A secondary aim is to give an account of the relationship of this targum to the Hebrew text and the other ancient versions, especially the Syriac.
Targum Qohelet is a blend of literal translation and midrashic paraphrase. The purpose is didactic, seeking to convey the meaning which is implicit in the text. Thus Qohelet becomes a vehicle to emphasize the importance of Torah study, repentance, prayer, and charity.
In the Logos edition, this volume is enhanced by amazing functionality. Scripture citations link directly to English translations, and important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a wealth of other resources in your digital library. Perform powerful searches to find exactly what you’re looking for. Take the discussion with you using tablet and mobile apps. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.
The Aramaic Bible series, under McNamara’s able leadership, has brought the difficult world of Targum to a larger audience of biblical scholars.
—Gary A. Rendsburg, Blanche and Irving Laurie Chair in Jewish History, Cornell University
Celine Mangan is associate professor of Scripture at Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy in Dublin.
John F. Healey is professor of Semitic studies at the University of Manchester.
Peter S. Knobel has been Rabbi Emeritus of Beth Emet the Free Synagogue since 2010. He earned his PhD from Yale University and is actively involved nationally and in communities in Chicago.