Promulgated in 1986, Dominum et Vivifcantem (The Lord and Giver of Life) focuses on the action of the Holy Spirit in the life of the Church. It is the final letter in Pope John Paul II's treatment of the Trinity, following Redemptor Hominis on the Son and Dives in Misericordia on the Father. In the first section, "The Spirit of the Father and of the Son, Given to the Church," the pope explores the action of the Holy Spirit through the Church in history. The second section, "The Spirit Who Convinces the World Concerning Sin," considers the continuing forgiveness and redemption from sin offered to man through the Holy Spirit. In the third section, "The Spirit Who Gives Life," the pontiff explains that even in the face of the atheistic materialism of modern culture, openness between man and God remains through the work of the Holy Spirit, most perfectly in the Sacraments of the Church. The Holy Spirit is, therefore, the guardian of hope.